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BOOK REVIEWS Introduction to Synthetic Electrical Conductors. John R. Ferraro and Jack M. Williams, Academic Press (1987) 337 pages $49.95. This volume is an excellent introduction and review of the field of synthetic electrical conductors, ex oxides and other chalcogenides. It is clearly written by two of the leading chemists in the field. After a brief introduction describing the historical development of the field, the next four chapters form the heart of this book. The first of these describes charge transfer complexes: TTF-TCNQ, Bechgaard salts and related materials from synthesis through structure to properties. The next chapter is concerned with the polyacetylene class of materials. This is a broad clear description that is only marred b y the unnecessary and misleading hype for the use of polyacetylene as a battery electrode. The next two chapters cover Krogmann salts and transition element-macrocyclic ligand complexes. All these are in sufficient detail that the reader gets a good feel for the state of the field and yet is not buried in detail. To supplement the text there are ample references to the literature for readers wishing more detail. Following these is a short chapter on the ionically conducting poly-ethylene oxide complexes and on the graphite intercalation compounds. This b o o k concludes with chapters covering an introduction to the physics of low dimensional systems and the effects of pressure and temperature on this type of electrical conductor. At the end there is a useful appendix containing an additional bibliography of work published in the last few years. Tbls volume is very timely as it marks the end of an era or peahap~ the emergence of a new era. It excellently summarizes the field as of late 1986 and the field. In addRion, it has a reasonable price, ~ 9 95 However, a.n omission is the complete neglect of metal oxides and suifidcs, despite the discovery of superconduc~.ivity at elevated temperatures, 13 K, in lithium titanium oxide and b a r i u m lead bismuthate in the mid 1970's and the rich physical properties of the disulfide intercalates although the correspofiding graphite materials are covered. This deficiency will undoubtedly be corrected by
others in light of the events of the past year, and a note has been added at the end of the volume briefly describing the 30-40 K superconducting lanthanum alkaline earth cuprates. Design of New Materials. Edited by D. L. Cocke and A. Clearfield, Plenum Publishing Corporation (1987) ,~70 pages $69.50 (+20% outside Canada & USA). This camera-ready hard-back volume covers the proceedings of the 4th Indusa'y-University Cooperative Chemistry Program Symposium held at Texas A&M University in 1986. The goal of this s y m p o s i u m was to 'highlight both the progress made in frontier areas of synthesis and some new ideas and theoretical concepts aimed at a better understanding of materials'. There are some 16 chapters averaging over 20 pages each. Most of these are introductory in nature giving an overview of the field, and are for the most part very clearly written. The chapters in the first half of the book are in the broad area of 'better ceramics through chemistry', covering such topics as ~ol-~;ei and laser gas processing amongst others. The second half covers glasses, a m o r p h o u s semiconductors, surface modification of metals t h r o u g h laser annealing, and crystallographic engineering (ie device innovation through use of unique structure-property rela'.ions). If y o u wanted to k n o w w h y there is such excitement about Materials Chemistry these days, this b o o k is a good and readable introduction. ~C~me of the chapters could be used for background reading for an undergraduate course in Materials Chemistry. There are, however, some key areas that have been omitted; these include diamond Solid 31a~ Cbe~s~ry. TechvAques° Edited by A. K. Cheetham and i:. D.~y, The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, N e w York (1987) 398 pages $70.00. There has been a dearth of books suitable for use in courses on solid state chemistry or for the researcher entering the area. That has begt~v to be rectified with the books by West and Tilley (see
review below) and now the first in a series from the Oxford group. This book is aimed at a level suitable for a final year undergraduate special topic or for a first year graduate chemistry course. Plans are for a companion volume on C o m p o u n d s to be published shortly. There are 10 chapters covering the synthesis and characterization of materials. The first by John Corbett is an overview of the synthetic techniques available to the chemist, and he does an excellent job of compressing most of the synthetic methods into 38 pages. The next chapters cover diffraction methods (Cheetham), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (Wertheim), magnetic measurements (Hatfield), optical techniques (Denning), high resolution solid state MAS NMR (Fyfe/Wasylishen), vibrational spectroscopy (Adams), and the thermodynamic aspects of inorganic solid state chemistry (Navrotsky). These are all clearly written with a reasonable mix of theory and technique; most are filled with examples and should give the research student the capability to pick the tool most appropriate to solve his or her problem. The other 2 chapters covering computational techniques (Catlow) and transport measurements (Hamnett) are somewhat weaker, pot so .,v.uch tor what they say but for what they don't. Thus, that on transport measurements makes essentially no mention of the transport of ions or of superconductivity; the former is not only essential because of the present interest in that area amongst chemists, but because the motion of ions can significantly distort measurements aimed at electronic transport determination. The latter speaks for itself. That on computational techniques takes its examples mainly from the author's own work, and is therefore somewhat restricted in scope; it also contains a numl~er of factual errors. Overall, a very welcome addition to the text book scene that could find extensive use as solid state/materials chemistry courses begin to get taught in US chemistry departments. But, to gain wide acceptance publishers must price within the range acceptable to a student purse (this comment equally applies to some of the other volumes reviewed here).
phenomena left to later chapters (eg the treatment of intrinsic and impurity diffusion - w h y not explain right up front that the higher intrinsic activation energy is simply the sum of the extrinsic one plus the formation energy of a defect). The inquisitive student is likely to get frustrated, but this cart be solved by a quick browse through the book so that one knows in advance where the answers are. It also should not be necessary to explain what an Arrhenius plot is (Fig 2.4); the same plot of actual data in Fig 2.5 should suffice (it should be noted that the data for [~-alumina is low by about two orders of magnitude). Yet, in other places figures are insufficiently described such as that (Fig 5.1) on the electrolytic conduction domain of some solid electrolytes. The author also unnecessarily introduces the term interpolation to cover the phenomenon of inserting atoms or ions into host lattices; this word has a rather specific meaning in mathematics, and can only cause confusion. Despite these weaknesses, this is a good book. The student reading through it will gain a good appreciation of the role of defects in solids (mostly oxides), what impact they have on such properties as diffusion, corrosion, electronic conductivVy, the photographic process and color and h o w they are Brouwer diagrams, how defects can order and the thermodynamics of defects. The book is divided into four parts: Stoichiometric crystals; Nonstoichiometric materials containing ions with fixed valence; Non-stoichiometric materials containing ions of variable valence; and The structures of non-stoichiometric phases. This is a good text for an introductory course on defects in solids, or for part of a course on materials chemistry and certainly should be o~ the shelf of every instructor of such a course. There is very little overlap with the volume by Cheetham and Day.
Defect Crystal Chemistry and Applications. R.J.D. Tilley, Chapman & Hall (Blackie in UK) (1987) 236 pages $69.95.
Molecular Structure and Energetics edited by J. F. Liebman and A. Greenberg, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, DM 240.00 per volume (DM 210.00 each if all volumes ordered) VoL 1 Chemical Bonding Models, 360 pages (1986) Vol. 2 Physical Measurements, 388 pages (1987) Vol 3 Studies of Organic Molecules, 385 pp (1986) VoL 4 Biophysical Aspects, 405 pages (1987)
This was a frustrating book to review. It is a very good introduction for the chemist to the chemistry of defects in crystalline materials; it could have been excellent. The proDlem is that the level is too low in places, with the explanation of
This series of volumes is primarily concerned with the s t r u c t u r e s of molecules and their encrgetics, but there are several articles particularly in the first two volumes that are of at least passing interest to the solid state scientist.
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